Mark D. Lazzaro - Published Videos

These videos are supplements to figures in this publication and are also published on the journal website.

Lazzaro MD, Cardenas L, *Bhatt AP, *Justus CD, *Phillips MS, Holdaway-Clarke TL, Hepler PK (2005) Calcium Calcium gradients in conifer pollen tubes; dynamic properties differ from those seen in angiosperms. Journal of Experimental Botany 56:2619-2628.

Figure 1: Pollen tubes have a 2-fold calcium gradient that pulsates as organelles move in a fountain pattern into the tip. (2 MB)
Figure 3: BAPTA injection triggers a dramatic pulsating influx of calcium.  Vesicles accumulate in the tip as growth stops. (8 MB)
Figure 4: Caffeine dissipates the calcium gradient triggering a large transient influx of calcium that disrupts motility. (9 MB)
Figure 6: Lanthanum dissipates the calcium gradient but does not affect motility. During recovery elevated calcium influx occurs which causes the fountain pattern of organelle motility to switch direction to a reverse fountain. (15 MB)
Figure 7: Verapamil stops organelle motility and growth as vesicles accumulate at the tip. During recovery the fountain pattern returns but growth does not resume. (11 MB)